Artificial Intelligence Questions Introduction to AI

pcbuck April 22, 2021 0 Comments

Artificial Intelligence Questions: Introduction to AI

If your AI interview is for an internship, there’s a good chance that theinterviewer will try to break the ice and make you feel more comfortable byasking some “simple” general interest questions.These types of questions usually cover the basics, so even if they soundstraightforward, you have to make sure that you don’t get stumped (seeminglysimple questions require that your answer be delivered easily and flawlessly).However, it can quickly get more involved, so you have to be ready forwhatever they throw at you.Related: The Most Common Machine Learning Terms, Explained

Artificial Intelligence Questions: Statistics

AI, ML, and data science all have a great deal of overlap, so it’s crucial tocover all bases before your AI interview. However, it’s important to note thatthese fields aren’t interchangeable. Although everything is relative, AIproduces actions, ML produces predictions, and data science produces insights.So what kind of potential data science-related AI questions should you beprepared for? Let’s take a look.

Artificial Intelligence Questions: Programming

AI interview questions are bound to enter the sphere of programming soonerrather than later. So let’s dive right into it with the following AI questionsand answers.

What is Artificial Intelligence?

It’s hard to define. Google the term and you’ll get a lot of different (andsometimes conflicting) results. Wikipedia gives it the shortest and mostambiguous definition of “intelligence exhibited by machines.” But then itgives a more understandable definition of machines that mimics cognitivefunctions such as problem solving and learning.The truth is that AI is hard to define, because intelligence is hard to definein the first place. But what we all agree on is that Artificial Intelligenceis not natural, such as what you find in human beings and some species ofanimals. It’s man-made. Yet it can reason, make decisions that take intoaccount various factors, such as how the human brain functions in general.RELATED: What is the difference between artificial intelligence, machinelearning and deep learning?Let’s also make it clear that the term “robot” is not a synonym for AI, eventhough it is sometimes used in that way (including by myself). ArtificialIntelligence is a reference to the software that manifests intelligence,whereas robots infer a physical element, a shell which carries out thedecisions made by the AI engine behind it. Not every AI needs a robot to carryout its functions, and retrospectively, not every robot needs true AI to powerits functionality.As we move forward and technology progresses and evolves, our definition of AIchanges. In fact, John McCarthy, who coined the term “Artificial Intelligence”in 1956, stressed that “as soon as it works, no one calls it AI anymore.”Today, many of the rules- and logic-based systems that were previouslyconsidered Artificial Intelligence are no longer classified as AI. Incontrast, systems that analyze and find patterns in data (machine learning)are becoming the dominant form of AI.But regardless of the mechanisms and behind the scenes, the level of AI can bebroken down into three main categories.

Artificial General Intelligence

General AI, also known as human-level AI or strong AI, is the type ofArtificial Intelligence that can understand and reason its environment as ahuman would. General AI has always been elusive. We’ve been saying for decadesthat it’s just around the corner.RELATED: The biggest AI developments of 2016But the more we delve into it, the more we realize that it’s hard toachieve—and the more we come to appreciate the miracle that is behind thehuman brain. It’s really hard to define what a human-level artificialintelligence would be. You just need to look at how you perceive things,juggle between multiple unrelated thoughts and memories when making adecision. That’s very hard for computers to achieve.Humans might not be able to process data as fast as computers, but they canthink abstractly and plan, solve problems at a general level without goinginto the details. They can innovate, come up with thoughts and ideas that haveno precedence. Think about the invention of the telephone, ships, telescopes,concepts such as mail, social media, gaming, virtual reality. It’s very hardto teach a computer to invent something that isn’t there.Some say we’ll see general AI before the turn of the century. Some, such asGoogle’s Peter Norvig and IBM’s Rob High believe we don’t even need humanlevel AI.

Artificial Super Intelligence

According to University of Oxford scholar and AI expert Nick Bostrom, when AIbecomes much smarter than the best human brains in practically every field,including scientific creativity, general wisdom and social skills, we’veachieved Artificial Super Intelligence.ASI is even more vague than AGI at this point.By some accounts, the distance between AGI and ASI is very short. It’ll happenin mere months, weeks, or maybe the blink of an eye and will continue at thespeed of light. What happens then, no one knows for sure. Some scientists suchas Stephen Hawking see the development of full artificial intelligence as thepotential end of humanity. Others, such as Google’s Demis Hassabis, believethe smarter AI gets, the better humans will become at saving the environment,curing diseases, explore the universe, and at understanding themselves.RELATED: Will general AI lead us to apocalypse or utopia?As for me, for the moment, I’m pestered by these smart online ads that seem tobe shadowing my every move on the internet, and these YouTube suggestions thatare all worth watching. Narrow AI is getting on my nerves. I guess General AIwill drive me crazy, if I live to see it.Artificial Intelligence: The Definition, Types, Applications, And CompaniesThere was once a time when people dreamed of living in an automated worldwhere daily mundane tasks would be in control of robots. However, with timethis mere dream has transformed into a reality with the rapid rise ofArtificial Intelligence (AI) which has introduced the world to an array ofpossibilities and opened up a whole new dimension. Today, ArtificialIntelligence is a word used in many fields from voice assistants to self-driving cars. The types and applications are in discussion and all theseservices are available to serve individual needs. Hence reaffirming the dreamof having an automated world where designed intelligent beings take care ofyour all affairs.But companies like to use the term AI to explain even the simple analytics orfunctionalities. Today, we will like to talk about AI in a way that will helpyou understand what it is and how is it evolving. We will explore where is itavailable, and who are the companies making use of AI.Let’s start with the AI definition.

What is Artificial Intelligence?

The definition of Artificial Intelligence says: “Description In computerscience, artificial intelligence, sometimes called machine intelligence, isintelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligencedisplayed by humans.” Artificial Intelligence (AI) refers to the induction ofhuman intelligence in computers which are experts to think like humans andimitate their behavior. Additionally, the word may also refer to any computerthat displays human mind-like characteristics such as learning and problem-solving based on that learning.Above all, AI is the technology that makes machines “think”. Also, it enablesthem to do tasks like humans do. It is not remembering data and process it ascommon programs do. It is enabling machines to think on their own and makelogical decisions about things like humans do. The common technologies oralgorithms that make AI possible are listed below. Anything that doesn’t usethese high-level algorithms can’t be regarded as AI. * Machine Learning * Deep Learning * Neural Networks * Bayesian networks * Evolutionary algorithms

Artificial Intelligence Background

Before we move on to discover the various types and applications of artificialintelligence, we need to visit the world of Alan Turing and more specificallythe Turing Test; a method of inquiry.Long before AI was a commonly used term in the world. Alan Turing had made aproposition that highlighted that the criteria for a computer to qualify ashaving artificial intelligence would simply be whether or not it could mimichuman responses under specific conditions.The test places a human observer or judge at the center of it all and asks itto decide the “human” out of the two candidates (one of which is a computer).If the judge points to the computer as the human candidate, it means that thecomputer did indeed have artificial intelligence. Since it was able to presentitself convincingly as a human to a blind judge.While this test has its own set of problems with validity and even with themethod of performance. It does not do away with the fact that with the righttraining and programming, computers can gain accurate knowledge and data. Thiscan be useful to assist humans across a variety of forms/arenas.

Types of Artificial Intelligence

The following can also be thought of as stages of AI through which AI isevolving and finally reach the stage like human intelligence. We discuss thethree most common types of AI below.

Type of Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence can be divided into three subfields: * Artificial intelligence * Machine learning * Deep learningTypes of Artificial Intelligence

Machine Learning

Machine learning is the art of study of algorithms that learn from examplesand experiences.Machine learning is based on the idea that there exist some patterns in thedata that were identified and used for future predictions.The difference from hardcoding rules is that the machine learns on its own tofind such rules.

AI vs. Machine Learning

Most of our smartphone, daily device or even the internet uses Artificialintelligence. Very often, AI and machine learning are used interchangeably bybig companies that want to announce their latest innovation. However, Machinelearning and AI are different in some ways.AI- artificial intelligence- is the science of training machines to performhuman tasks. The term was invented in the 1950s when scientists beganexploring how computers could solve problems on their own.Artificial Intelligence vs Machine LearningArtificial Intelligence is a computer that is given human-like properties.Take our brain; it works effortlessly and seamlessly to calculate the worldaround us. Artificial Intelligence is the concept that a computer can do thesame. It can be said that AI is the large science that mimics human aptitudes.Machine learning is a distinct subset of AI that trains a machine how tolearn. Machine learning models look for patterns in data and try to conclude.In a nutshell, the machine does not need to be explicitly programmed bypeople. The programmers give some examples, and the computer is going to learnwhat to do from those samples.

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