3 2 Two and half axis control system
2] Digital Computer
When it comes down to representing numerals, letters, and other symbols adigital computer relies on digits to get the job done. The inputs here are ONand OFF, and the same goes for outputs.In a typical case, ON is represented by 1, while off is represented by 0. Asit stands, then, we can conclude that digital computers process data that isbased on the existence or the absence of an electrical charge. In short, thisis called binary 1 or binary 0.For those who might want to process numerical or non-numerical data, a digitalcomputer is more than capable of performing such tasks. Furthermore, suchsystems can perform arithmetic operations with ease, and in most instances,much faster than the human brain.The man behind the first electronic digital computer is a man known as John V.Atanasoff. The device was built between 1939 and 1942, and his assistance wasa German engineer who goes by the name, Clifford E. Berry. Konrad Zuse.Right now, the most common digital computers are that of calculators andaccounting machines.Some characteristics of Digital Computers * Discrete values * Large memory * Faster speed * Very reliable * Results are 100 percent accurateTime to talk about Hybrid Computers, which are the most known around the worlddue to being widely used by consumers and businesses alike.
3. Number of axis type CNC
3.5. 5 axis machines and above.
1.2 Point to point control system:
The work piece and the tool are placed in the position and the tool does itswork. These types of machines are called point to point systems. The drilling,tapping and boring machines are characterized under these types. The workpiece is not moved until the tool finishes the job and retracts to the safety.The point to point control system works as shown in the below figure.
2. Loop control CNC systems:
Based on the looping system the CNC systems are classified into twocategories, “Open loop system” and “closed loop system”.
3.1 Two axis control system:
Two axis control system is a machine which give access to only two axis. Thebest example is the lathe machine. The machine driven with the servo motorallows you only 2 axis, i.e., X and the z Axis. Here in lathe the job will berotating and the tool will be moving in 2 directions, indicating the depth Zand the cut in X direction. So the program is done with x and the Z direction,where as in lathe universally use U and V which is implies same as X and Y.
3.2 Two and half axis control system:
Two and half axis control system is also a three axis machine but the movementwill not be 3 dimensional. These are the best example for drilling and tappingmachines. First the X and the Y axis are moved to the position and then thethird axis comes to effect. In some of the machines the first X movement ismade and the Y movement to reach the XY destination when it is in rapid, Butwhile in feed or machining mode it does its work with 2 dimensional movingalong x and y simultaneously, These type of machines may also called as twoand half axis machines or 2.5 axis machine.
3.3 Three axis control system:
Three axis control systems are the machines which moves in three dimensionali.e., X, Y and Z axis move simultaneously. These are the most popular machineswhich can produce high accurate precision parts with three axis machines. Theservo motor control the movements as per the instructions are given. The threeaxis has verity of machines based on their bed lengths. As the bed lengthincreases the cost of the machine increases. The number of setups increasesand the cost also increases, three axis machines are limited for simple jobsand straight forward 3 axis jobs.
3.4 Four axis control system:
In Four axis control system is a three axis machine with an extra rotation onB-axis, four axis can be a vertical machine or an horizontal machine.In vertical CNC machine the rotary head is added on the side of the machinebed. The machine works as the three axis machine but it has a rotary head forexample if the holes have be machined on the tube, the tube can be mounted onthe rotary B-axis and the drilling in the required angle. But vertical 4-axismachines are limited for the small jobs.Horizontal 4-axis machines are used worldwide for successful machining of bigparts in a single setup, where it takes 2-3 setups in a 3-axis machine. Thepart is mounted on the bed which has 360 rotations around Y direction i.e.,B-Axis giving chance for the tool to cut on the angled faces in a singlesetup.
3.5 Five axis control system:
Five axis control system are the three axis machines with an extra rotationalong Y and Z directions which are called B-axis and A-axis. As in Four axismachines B rotation is given by the bed and the A-axis rotation is given bythe spindle movement called PIVOT point. Using a five axis machine reduces thecycle time by machining the complex parts in a single setup and improves theaccuracy on the positional errors by eliminating the setups.Five axis machining gives improved access to the under cuts and deep pocketsby tilting the tool and also gives good surface finish and the tool life bytilting the tool to maintain optimum tool to part contact all the times. There are more than five axis control systems in the world making aerospaceand automobile industries to achieve their accuracy and meet the requirements. Real Life Examples of Embedded SystemsHello Friends, I hope you are fine and doing great in your lives. Today I amgoing to write an article on real life examples of embedded systems. TheseEmbedded Systems Examples belong to real life appliances and devices, which weuse in our daily routine. I hope you already have the idea of embedded systemsbut if you don’t then you can find the introduction to embedded systems in myprevious article What is Embedded System? And also you can go through What isEmbedded Computer? I have also shared few Embedded Systems Examples in thisarticle. My article on 8 things for learning embedded system programming canhelp you in getting starting with your Embedded Systems Project.Embedded systems perform specific tasks. They have Microcontroller as the mainpart which controls all the operations required through them. This article onexamples of embedded systems can help you to get an idea of common systemswhich we use in our daily lives. These systems are smart and more efficient,which is increasing their use day by day. Almost every device that we usetoday is an example of embedded systems. Embedded systems examples can be seenat our homes, at offices, in industries and in automation systems.So, in simple words, most of the daily routine appliances, devices orautomated equipment lies in the circle of Embedded Systems Examples.I havediscussed few of these Examples of Embedded Systems in today’s tutorial sothat you got to know its importance and believe me if you learn embeddedSystems then you can also create something, helpful to society. So, let’s getstarted with Examples of Embedded Systems:
Examples of Embedded Systems
As I told earlier, there’s an endless list of Examples of Embedded Systems andwe can’t cover all of these Embedded Systems examples in detail here so I havediscussed few of these Embedded Systems Examples in detail and have mentionedthe rest of them and yes still I have missed a lot. 🙂 One of the mostexciting Examples of Embedded Systems is Digital Camera so let’s have a lookat its features:
Automotive Embedded Systems
* Examples of embedded systems include automotive. Today cars use embedded systems replacing old traditional systems. * Electronic Control Units are used in automotive embedded systems Examples. * This unit contains microcontroller, switches, sensors, drivers, etc. * All the sensors and actuators are connected to electronic control unit. * Automobiles using embedded systems may consists of hundreds of microprocessors. * Each microcontroller (Arduino, PIC Microcontroller, 8051 Microcontroller etc.) performs its own dedicated task. Some of them control engine. Some run dashboard devices. * The whole system is actually comprised of several small systems. * Using embedded systems in automotive has reduced the cost factor. * It has improved the overall performance and increased functionality. * It has also reduced weight and made automobile more safe and reliable. * Applications of automotive embedded systems include: * Automatic Stability Control * Traction Control System * Pre-crash Safety System * Air bag * Car Navigation System * So you can see that using embedded systems in automobiles is very useful and has increased the functionality of automotive.
Home Security System
* In embedded systems examples, I have another interesting one on my list that is home security system. * Home security systems are used largely today. * These systems have several features just as checking for fire or gas leakages, and detecting if someone suspicious tries to enter the house. * A Microcontroller is used for controlling all the operations. Sensors give data and if something wrong happens than safety alarms get activated. * Sensors used in such systems include gas sensors, smoke sensors, temperature sensors, IR sensors etc. * Also a keypad is included in such systems for entering password at the gate. * If correct password is entered then this embedded system opens the gate and if someone tries to enter wrong password than alarm is set on and gates remain closed. * The output is received from alarms or some display. * The output can also be sent to some distant location. * If family members are not present in home then still they can monitor the activities going on in their house. * Home security system is not limited to homes. * Such systems can be used at shops, stores and in industries. * Almost every industry and office has security systems that can recognize the workers from their face or identity cards. * Home automation system is also one of the examples of embedded systems as home security system.