2 Use a proxy to hide your IP address

pcbuck April 22, 2021 0 Comments



IPv4 addresses


An IPv4 address has a size of 32 bits, which limits the address space to4294967296 (232) addresses. Of this number, some addresses are reserved forspecial purposes such as private networks (~18 million addresses) andmulticast addressing (~270 million addresses).IPv4 addresses are usually represented in dot-decimal notation, consisting offour decimal numbers, each ranging from 0 to 255, separated by dots, e.g.,172.16.254.1. Each part represents a group of 8 bits (an octet) of theaddress. In some cases of technical writing,[specify] IPv4 addresses may bepresented in various hexadecimal, octal, or binary representations.

IPv6 addresses


Decomposition of an IPv6 address fromhexadecimalrepresentation to its binary value.In IPv6, the address size was increased from 32 bits in IPv4 to 128 bits, thusproviding up to 2128 (approximately 3.403×1038) addresses. This is deemedsufficient for the foreseeable future.The intent of the new design was not to provide just a sufficient quantity ofaddresses, but also redesign routing in the Internet by allowing moreefficient aggregation of subnetwork routing prefixes. This resulted in slowergrowth of routing tables in routers. The smallest possible individualallocation is a subnet for 264 hosts, which is the square of the size of theentire IPv4 Internet. At these levels, actual address utilization ratios willbe small on any IPv6 network segment. The new design also provides theopportunity to separate the addressing infrastructure of a network segment,i.e. the local administration of the segment’s available space, from theaddressing prefix used to route traffic to and from external networks. IPv6has facilities that automatically change the routing prefix of entirenetworks, should the global connectivity or the routing policy change, withoutrequiring internal redesign or manual renumbering.The large number of IPv6 addresses allows large blocks to be assigned forspecific purposes and, where appropriate, to be aggregated for efficientrouting. With a large address space, there is no need to have complex addressconservation methods as used in CIDR.All modern desktop and enterprise server operating systems include nativesupport for the IPv6 protocol, but it is not yet widely deployed in otherdevices, such as residential networking routers, voice over IP (VoIP) andmultimedia equipment, and some networking hardware.

IPv4 addresses


An IPv4 address has a size of 32 bits, which limits the address space to4294967296 (232) addresses. Of this number, some addresses are reserved forspecial purposes such as private networks (~18 million addresses) andmulticast addressing (~270 million addresses).IPv4 addresses are usually represented in dot-decimal notation, consisting offour decimal numbers, each ranging from 0 to 255, separated by dots, e.g.,172.16.254.1. Each part represents a group of 8 bits (an octet) of theaddress. In some cases of technical writing,[specify] IPv4 addresses may bepresented in various hexadecimal, octal, or binary representations.

IPv6 addresses


Decomposition of an IPv6 address fromhexadecimalrepresentation to its binary value.In IPv6, the address size was increased from 32 bits in IPv4 to 128 bits, thusproviding up to 2128 (approximately 3.403×1038) addresses. This is deemedsufficient for the foreseeable future.The intent of the new design was not to provide just a sufficient quantity ofaddresses, but also redesign routing in the Internet by allowing moreefficient aggregation of subnetwork routing prefixes. This resulted in slowergrowth of routing tables in routers. The smallest possible individualallocation is a subnet for 264 hosts, which is the square of the size of theentire IPv4 Internet. At these levels, actual address utilization ratios willbe small on any IPv6 network segment. The new design also provides theopportunity to separate the addressing infrastructure of a network segment,i.e. the local administration of the segment’s available space, from theaddressing prefix used to route traffic to and from external networks. IPv6has facilities that automatically change the routing prefix of entirenetworks, should the global connectivity or the routing policy change, withoutrequiring internal redesign or manual renumbering.The large number of IPv6 addresses allows large blocks to be assigned forspecific purposes and, where appropriate, to be aggregated for efficientrouting. With a large address space, there is no need to have complex addressconservation methods as used in CIDR.All modern desktop and enterprise server operating systems include nativesupport for the IPv6 protocol, but it is not yet widely deployed in otherdevices, such as residential networking routers, voice over IP (VoIP) andmultimedia equipment, and some networking hardware.

IPv4 addresses


Decomposition of an IPv4 address from dot-decimal notation to its binaryvalue.In IPv4 an address consists of 32 bits which limits the address space to4294967296 (232) possible unique addresses. IPv4 reserves some addresses forspecial purposes such as private networks (~18 million addresses) or multicastaddresses (~270 million addresses).IPv4 addresses are canonically represented in dot-decimal notation, whichconsists of four decimal numbers, each ranging from 0 to 255, separated bydots, e.g., 172.16.254.1. Each part represents a group of 8 bits (octet) ofthe address. In some cases of technical writing, IPv4 addresses may bepresented in various hexadecimal, octal, or binary representations.

IPv4 address exhaustion


High levels of demand have decreased the supply of unallocated InternetProtocol Version 4 (IPv4) addresses available for assignment to Internetservice providers and end user organizations since the 1980s. This developmentis referred to as IPv4 address exhaustion. IANA’s primary address pool wasexhausted on 3 February 2011, when the last five blocks were allocated to thefive RIRs.[5][6] APNIC was the first RIR to exhaust its regional pool on 15April 2011, except for a small amount of address space reserved for thetransition to IPv6, intended to be allocated in a restricted process.[7]

IPv6 addresses


Decomposition of an IPv6 address from hexadecimal representation to its binaryvalue.The rapid exhaustion of IPv4 address space prompted the Internet EngineeringTask Force (IETF) to explore new technologies to expand the addressingcapability in the Internet. The permanent solution was deemed to be a redesignof the Internet Protocol itself. This new generation of the Internet Protocolwas eventually named Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) in 1995. The addresssize was increased from 32 to 128 bits (16 octets), thus providing up to 2128(approximately 3.403×1038) addresses. This is deemed sufficient for theforeseeable future.The intent of the new design was not to provide just a sufficient quantity ofaddresses, but also redesign routing in the Internet by more efficientaggregation of subnetwork routing prefixes. The resulted in slower growth ofrouting tables in routers. The smallest possible individual allocation is asubnet for 264 hosts, which is the square of the size of the entire IPv4Internet. At these levels, actual address utilization rates will be small onany IPv6 network segment. The new design also provides the opportunity toseparate the addressing infrastructure of a network segment, i.e. the localadministration of the segment’s available space, from the addressing prefixused to route traffic to and from external networks. IPv6 has facilities thatautomatically change the routing prefix of entire networks, should the globalconnectivity or the routing policy change, without requiring internal redesignor manual renumbering.The large number of IPv6 addresses allows large blocks to be assigned forspecific purposes and, where appropriate, to be aggregated for efficientrouting. With a large address space, there is no need to have complex addressconservation methods as used in CIDR.All modern desktop and enterprise server operating systems include nativesupport for the IPv6 protocol, but it is not yet widely deployed in otherdevices, such as residential networking routers, voice over IP (VoIP) andmultimedia equipment, and network peripherals.

IPv4 addresses


An IPv4 address has a size of 32 bits, which limits the address space to4294967296 (232) addresses. Of this number, some addresses are reserved forspecial purposes such as private networks (~18 million addresses) andmulticast addressing (~270 million addresses).IPv4 addresses are usually represented in dot-decimal notation, consisting offour decimal numbers, each ranging from 0 to 255, separated by dots, e.g.,172.16.254.1. Each part represents a group of 8 bits (an octet) of theaddress. In some cases of technical writing,[specify] IPv4 addresses may bepresented in various hexadecimal, octal, or binary representations.

IPv6 addresses


Decomposition of an IPv6 address fromhexadecimalrepresentation to its binary value.In IPv6, the address size was increased from 32 bits in IPv4 to 128 bits, thusproviding up to 2128 (approximately 3.403×1038) addresses. This is deemedsufficient for the foreseeable future.The intent of the new design was not to provide just a sufficient quantity ofaddresses, but also redesign routing in the Internet by allowing moreefficient aggregation of subnetwork routing prefixes. This resulted in slowergrowth of routing tables in routers. The smallest possible individualallocation is a subnet for 264 hosts, which is the square of the size of theentire IPv4 Internet. At these levels, actual address utilization ratios willbe small on any IPv6 network segment. The new design also provides theopportunity to separate the addressing infrastructure of a network segment,i.e. the local administration of the segment’s available space, from theaddressing prefix used to route traffic to and from external networks. IPv6has facilities that automatically change the routing prefix of entirenetworks, should the global connectivity or the routing policy change, withoutrequiring internal redesign or manual renumbering.The large number of IPv6 addresses allows large blocks to be assigned forspecific purposes and, where appropriate, to be aggregated for efficientrouting. With a large address space, there is no need to have complex addressconservation methods as used in CIDR.All modern desktop and enterprise server operating systems include nativesupport for the IPv6 protocol, but it is not yet widely deployed in otherdevices, such as residential networking routers, voice over IP (VoIP) andmultimedia equipment, and some networking hardware.

What Version Is My IP Address? IPv4 vs. IPv6


Currently, there are two coexisting standards (also called versions) forformulating IP addresses: 1. In IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4), an IP address is made up of decimal digits and contains 32 bits or 4 bytes. Each byte constitutes an 8-bit field with decimals and a period, which is why some call IPv4 address nomenclature the “dot-decimal format.” While this has worked well enough for quite some time, the 32-bit constraintmeans IPv4 only allows for variations or approximately 4 billion addresses. Atpresent, the global number of internet-connected devices already far exceedsthat threshold, at 26.66 billion. To compensate, many networks use bothprivate and public IP addresses, so several devices within a local network mayshare a public IP address but have separate private IP addresses. A systemcalled the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) assigns private IPaddresses within a network. While this system has worked historically, it poses a couple of problems.First, it introduces an additional step in networking and increasesadministrative overhead. Second, if the DHCP and DNS server aren’tsynchronized (or if multiple DHCPs are running at once, which admins shouldavoid), listed IP addresses can be incorrect or duplicated, causing transferissues that can, in turn, hinder network performance. When two devices share asingle IP address, they may not be able to connect to the internet or thelocal network at all. 2. IPv6 was developed to circumvent these complications. Four times larger than an IPv4 address, an IPv6 address contains 128 bits in total, written in hexadecimal, and punctuated by colons rather than periods.With more data allocated for each address, the IPv6 protocol creates many moreIP address variations than IPv4, eliminating the need to assign public andprivate addresses, which can result in collisions. Since it allows forvariations, the new protocol provides a good deal of room for IoT to grow.Because IPv6 is an evolutionary upgrade, it can coexist with IPv4 and will doso until the earlier version is eventually phased out. For this reason, IPv6is also referred to as IPng — meaning “Internet Protocol next generation.”So far, IPv6 addresses still represent the minority of internet traffic, butthey’ve started to capture a larger portion. As of June 2019, around 29% ofGoogle users accessed the site over IPv6, and around 38% of internet users inthe United States have already adopted IPv6 with minimal latency rates. Bytransitioning to IPv6 over time, the internet should be able to allocate moreindividual addresses to devices, increasing both the number of hosts and thevolume of data traffic it can accommodate.Back to Top

2. Use a proxy to hide your IP address


Like a VPN, a proxy acts as a middleman between your device and the internet.Websites and apps see the IP address of the proxy server and not your real IPaddress.In fact, a VPN is technically a type of proxy. But when I say “proxy,” I’musually referring to either an SSL, SSH, or SOCKS proxy. These types ofproxies typically lack the encryption and other security features offered byVPNs, but they do hide your IP address from websites. They can be configuredin existing apps like your browser or, like a VPN, use a third-party app.Proxies usually don’t usually include DNS traffic, so your website requestsstill go to a third-party DNS server that can see your real IP address. VPNswith leak protection don’t have this problem. Furthermore, your real IP couldbe exposed if the proxy connection drops for some reason.Because proxies lack the authentication of VPNs, they are also moresusceptible to man-in-the-middle attacks, in which an attacker can pose as theproxy server to steal your data.Some VPNs offer HTTPS (SSL) proxies as browser extensions for Chrome andFirefox. These do a decent job of protecting your browser, but other apps andDNS requests can still expose your IP address.

4. Connect to a different network to change your IP address


Whenever you change networks, your IP address changes as well. So if you thinkthe IP address you’ve been using has been compromised, blocked, or tracked,then you can change networks to get a new one.You can connect to a public or private wifi network, or use your smartphone’smobile data connection. Note that public wifi hotspots and open networks canbe hunting grounds for hackers that can take advantage of the lack ofencryption and authentication. Opt for networks that require a password, ifpossible.

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